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Beau Gonzalez
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Dinosaurs: The Fascinating Facts and Figures of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods.

Dinosaurs: Facts, Fossils, Types, and Evolution

Dinosaurs are among the most fascinating and mysterious creatures that ever lived on Earth. They dominated the land for over 160 million years, from the Triassic to the Cretaceous periods, and then suddenly disappeared 66 million years ago. How did they evolve? What did they look like? How did they behave? How did they die? These are some of the questions that scientists have been trying to answer for centuries, using fossils, experiments, and computer models. In this article, we will explore some of the most interesting facts, discoveries, and debates about dinosaurs, their fossils, their types, and their evolution.

What are dinosaurs?

Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles that belong to the clade Dinosauria, which means "terrible lizards" in Greek. However, not all reptiles are dinosaurs, and not all dinosaurs were terrible. Dinosaurs had some distinctive features that set them apart from other reptiles, such as a hole in their hip socket that allowed them to walk upright, and a complex system of air sacs in their bones that helped them breathe and regulate their body temperature. Dinosaurs also varied greatly in size, shape, diet, and behavior, from tiny feathered hunters to gigantic long-necked herbivores.


Definition and characteristics of dinosaurs

The first person to formally name and describe dinosaurs was the British naturalist Richard Owen in 1842. He based his definition on three fossil specimens: Megalosaurus, Iguanodon, and Hylaeosaurus. He noticed that these animals had some common features that distinguished them from other reptiles, such as large size, strong limbs, fused bones, and teeth set in sockets. He also coined the term Dinosauria, which means "terrible lizards" in Greek.

However, Owen's definition was not very precise or accurate. Since then, scientists have discovered many more fossils and revised the definition of dinosaurs several times. Today, the most widely accepted definition is based on a common ancestor: a dinosaur is any animal that shares a more recent ancestor with Triceratops than with crocodiles. This means that dinosaurs are a monophyletic group: they include all the descendants of a single ancestor.

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Some of the characteristics that define dinosaurs are:

  • A hole in their hip socket (acetabulum) that allowed them to walk upright

  • A complex system of air sacs in their bones that helped them breathe and regulate their body temperature

  • A three or more vertebrae sacrum (a fused section of the lower spine) that supported their pelvis

  • A hand with three main fingers (and sometimes a fourth or fifth reduced finger)

  • A foot with three main toes (and sometimes a fourth or fifth reduced toe)

  • A single opening in front of each eye (antorbital fenestra) that housed air sacs or glands

  • A single opening on each side of the skull behind each eye (infratemporal fenestra) that reduced the weight of the skull

  • A single opening on each side of the lower jaw (mandibular fenestra) that reduced the weight of the jaw

The main groups of dinosaurs

Dinosaurs can be divided into two main groups based on their hip structure: saurischians ("lizard-hipped") and ornithischians ("bird-hipped"). Saurischians had a hip structure that resembled that of modern lizards, with the pubis bone pointing forward. Saurischians included theropods (bipedal carnivores) and sauropodomorphs (long-necked herbivores). Ornithischians had a hip structure that resembled that of modern birds, with the pubis bone pointing backward. Ornithischians included ornithopods (bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores), thyreophorans (armored herbivores), marginocephalians (herbivores with frills or horns), and ceratopsians (herbivores with beaks and horns).

The table below summarizes some of the main features and examples of each group:


Hip structure





Hollow bones, air sacs, long tails, clawed fingers and toes

Tyrannosaurus, Velociraptor, Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus



Herbivorous teeth, beaks, cheek pouches, tail clubs, spikes, plates, frills, horns

Triceratops, Stegosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Iguanodon

The living descendants of dinosaurs

Although most dinosaurs went extinct 66 million years ago, some of them survived and evolved into a new group of animals: birds. Birds are considered to be a subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, and share many features with their ancestors, such as feathers, hollow bones, air sacs, and a wishbone. The earliest known bird is Archaeopteryx, which lived about 150 million years ago and had a mix of reptilian and avian traits. Since then, birds have diversified into more than 10,000 species, ranging from hummingbirds to ostriches.

Birds are not the only living relatives of dinosaurs. Crocodiles and alligators are also closely related to dinosaurs, as they belong to the same group of reptiles: Archosauria. Archosaurs are characterized by having two openings on each side of the skull behind the eyes (diapsid skull), and four-chambered hearts. Crocodiles and alligators are more closely related to birds than to lizards or turtles.

When and where did dinosaurs live?

Dinosaurs lived on Earth for over 160 million years, from the Triassic to the Cretaceous periods. They originated from a small group of reptiles that diversified after a mass extinction event at the end of the Permian period, about 252 million years ago. They evolved and adapted to different environments and climates, and spread to all continents. They were the dominant land animals for most of their history, until another mass extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous period, about 66 million years ago.

The origin and evolution of dinosaurs

The first dinosaurs appeared in the late Triassic period, about 230 million years ago. They were small, bipedal, and carnivorous animals that competed with other reptiles for food and space. Some of the earliest known dinosaurs are Eoraptor, Herrerasaurus, and Coelophysis. They had some features that distinguished them from other reptiles, such as a hole in their hip socket that allowed them to walk upright.

In the early Jurassic period, about 200 million years ago, dinosaurs diversified into two main groups: saurischians and ornithischians. They also grew larger and more specialized in their diets and behaviors. Some of the most famous dinosaurs from this period are Allosaurus, Apatosaurus, Stegosaurus, and Scelidosaurus. They also faced new challenges from other groups of animals, such as pterosaurs (flying reptiles) and marine reptiles.

In the late Jurassic period, about 150 million years ago, dinosaurs reached their peak of diversity and size. Some of the largest and most impressive dinosaurs lived in this period, such as Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus, Tyrannosaurus, and Archaeopteryx. They also coexisted with the first mammals, which were small, nocturnal, and insectivorous animals.

In the early Cretaceous period, about 100 million years ago, dinosaurs continued to evolve and adapt to different habitats and climates. Some of them developed new features, such as feathers, horns, crests, and armor. Some of the most notable dinosaurs from this period are Velociraptor, Triceratops, Spinosaurus, and Iguanodon. They also faced new predators and competitors, such as snakes, frogs, and flowering plants.

In the late Cretaceous period, about 66 million years ago, dinosaurs were still the dominant land animals, but they also faced many challenges and changes. Some of them became extinct due to volcanic eruptions, climate change, or competition. Some of them survived and thrived in isolated regions, such as South America, Australia, and Antarctica. Some of the most remarkable dinosaurs from this period are Argentinosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Deinonychus, and Parasaurolophus. They also witnessed the rise of new groups of animals, such as birds, marsupials, and placental mammals.

The geographic distribution of dinosaurs

Dinosaurs lived on all continents, including Antarctica. However, the distribution of dinosaurs was not uniform or static. It changed over time due to continental drift, sea level fluctuations, climate change, and biogeographic barriers. For example, in the Triassic period, all the continents were joined together in a single landmass called Pangaea. This allowed dinosaurs to spread easily across the globe. However, in the Jurassic period, Pangaea began to break apart into two smaller landmasses: Laurasia and Gondwana. This created new oceans and mountain ranges that separated some dinosaur populations. In the Cretaceous period, Laurasia and Gondwana further split into smaller continents that resembled the modern ones. This resulted in more isolation and diversification of dinosaur groups.

The table below shows some of the major dinosaur groups and their geographic distribution:




All continents


All continents except Antarctica


All continents except Antarctica


All continents except Australia and Antarctica


North America, Asia, Europe


North America, Asia

The diversity and adaptation of dinosaurs

Dinosaurs were very diverse and adaptable animals. They ranged in size from less than 1 meter to more than 30 meters in length. They had different body shapes, skin coverings, head ornaments, and tail weapons. They had different diets, from herbivores to carnivores to omnivores. They had different behaviors, from solitary to social, from territorial to migratory, from nocturnal to diurnal. They had different modes of locomotion, from walking to running to swimming to flying. They had different senses, from vision to hearing to smell to touch. They had different ways of communicating, from vocalizations to body language to coloration.

Dinosaurs adapted to different environments and climates by evolving various features and strategies. For example, some dinosaurs developed feathers or fur to keep warm in cold regions or seasons. Some dinosaurs developed armor or spikes to protect themselves from predators or rivals. Some dinosaurs developed horns or crests to attract mates or intimidate enemies. Some dinosaurs developed beaks or specialized teeth to process different kinds of food. Some dinosaurs developed long necks or legs to reach high or far resources. Some dinosaurs developed wings or gliding membranes to escape danger or explore new areas.

How do we know about dinosaurs?

The main source of information about dinosaurs is their fossils. Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms that are found in rocks or sediments. Fossils can include bones, teeth, shells, eggs, footprints, skin impressions, coprolites (fossilized feces), and gastroliths (stones swallowed by some dinosaurs to help digestion). Fossils can tell us about the anatomy, physiology, diet, behavior, and evolution of dinosaurs.

The discovery and study of dinosaur fossils

The first dinosaur fossils were discovered in the 17th and 18th centuries by miners, farmers, and naturalists who did not know what they were. They were often mistaken for the bones of giants, dragons, or other mythical creatures. The first scientific recognition of dinosaur fossils was in the early 19th century by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier, who identified them as belonging to extinct reptiles. The first systematic collection and description of dinosaur fossils was in the mid-19th century by the British paleontologists William Buckland, Gideon Mantell, and Richard Owen, who named and classified some of the first dinosaurs.

Since then, dinosaur fossils have been discovered all over the world, in every continent and in every type of rock formation. Thousands of dinosaur species have been named and described, based on fossil evidence ranging from complete skeletons to isolated bones. Some of the most famous dinosaur fossil sites are the Morrison Formation in North America, the Jurassic Coast in England, the Yixian Formation in China, the Hell Creek Formation in Montana, and the La Brea Tar Pits in California.

The methods and techniques of paleontology

Paleontology is the scientific study of fossils and ancient life. Paleontologists use various methods and techniques to find, collect, prepare, analyze, and interpret fossil evidence. Some of these methods and techniques are:

  • Fieldwork: Paleontologists search for fossils in places where rocks are exposed or eroded by natural forces such as wind, water, or ice. They use tools such as hammers, chisels, brushes, and sieves to break and remove rocks that contain fossils. They also use maps, compasses, GPS devices, and drones to locate and document fossil sites.

  • Laboratory work: Paleontologists clean, repair, and prepare fossils for study and display. They use tools such as scalpels, needles, glue, and plaster to remove dirt and debris, fix cracks and breaks, and make casts and molds of fossils. They also use microscopes, scanners, and cameras to examine and photograph fossils in detail.

  • Analysis: Paleontologists measure, compare, and classify fossils based on their morphology (shape and structure), anatomy (internal organs and tissues), and phylogeny (evolutionary relationships). They use tools such as calipers, scales, rulers, and computers to quantify and visualize fossil data. They also use statistical methods, mathematical models, and computer simulations to test hypotheses and make predictions about fossil organisms.

  • Interpretation: Paleontologists infer the biology, ecology, and history of fossil organisms based on their fossil evidence and other sources of information. They use tools such as cladograms (diagrams that show evolutionary relationships), biogeographic maps (maps that show geographic distribution of organisms), and paleoenvironmental reconstructions (models that show ancient environments) to explain how fossil organisms lived, interacted, and evolved. They also use comparative methods, experimental methods, and analogical methods to support their interpretations.

The challenges and controversies of dinosaur science

Paleontology is not an easy or exact science. Paleontologists face many challenges and controversies in their work. Some of these challenges and controversies are:

  • Fossil preservation: Fossils are rare and incomplete. Only a small fraction of organisms become fossils, and only a small fraction of fossils are discovered. Fossils are also subject to erosion, deformation, distortion, fragmentation, and loss. Fossils can be damaged or destroyed by natural forces or human activities. Fossils can also be faked or altered by frauds or vandals.

  • Fossil interpretation: Fossils are ambiguous and uncertain. Fossils do not always preserve all the features or behaviors of organisms. Fossils can be misidentified or misclassified due to similarities or differences among organisms. Fossils can also be misinterpreted or misunderstood due to biases or assumptions of scientists. Fossils can also be disputed or debated due to conflicting or incomplete evidence.

  • Fossil communication: Fossils are complex and technical. Fossils require specialized knowledge and skills to study and understand. Fossils can be difficult or impossible to access or share due to legal or ethical issues. Fossils can also be misrepresented or misused by media or public due to sensationalism or misinformation.

Why did dinosaurs go extinct?

The most widely accepted explanation for the extinction of dinosaurs is the impact hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that a large asteroid or comet hit the Earth 66 million years ago, creating a global catastrophe that killed most of the dinosaurs and many other living things. The impact hypothesis is supported by various lines of evidence, such as the presence of a large crater in Mexico (the Chicxulub crater), the presence of a thin layer of iridium (a rare metal) in rocks around the world (the K-Pg boundary), the presence of shocked quartz (a mineral that forms under high pressure) in rocks near the crater, and the presence of microtektites (small glassy spheres that form from molten rock) in sediments around the world . The impact hypothesis explains how the asteroid or comet caused a series of devastating effects that wiped out most of the dinosaurs and many other living things. Some of these effects are: - A huge explosion that released a massive amount of energy and heat, creating a fireball and a shockwave that vaporized, incinerated, or blasted away anything near the impact site. - A giant dust cloud that blocked out the sunlight and reduced the temperature, creating a global winter that lasted for months or years, affecting photosynthesis and food production. - A rain of molten rock and debris that fell back to Earth, creating more fires and destruction, and increasing the acidity and toxicity of the soil and water. - A massive tsunami that flooded the coastal areas, destroying habitats and drowning organisms. - A series of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that shook the ground and spewed lava and ash, altering the landscape and climate. The impact hypothesis also explains why some dinosaurs and other living things survived the catastrophe. Some of the factors that influenced survival are: - Loc


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